Human Performance and Limitation

EASA regulations require that a CRM trainer should have followed a theoretical human performance and limitations (HPL) course.* This course delivers the HPL elements required to meet EASA requirements for CRM trainers. This course is ideal for flight deck crew who will be CRM Trainers but did not complete an HPL course as part of their ATPL training or those who require HPL refresher training.

The course is equally suitable for cabin crew who will be CRM trainers to provide the background understanding of HPL and to fulfil the EASA requirement for CRM Trainers HPL training.

Course Content - Human Performance and Limitations


  • Background to HPL
  • SHEL model
  • Conceptual model of human factors

Circulation and oxygen

  • Blood donation
  • Factors which inhibit oxygen carriage
  • Cabin pressurisation/depressurisation
  • Hypoxia
  • Hyperventilation

Sensory System

  • Vestibular system
  • Balance and orientation
  • Vestibular and samatogravic illusions
  • Motion sickness
  • The visual system
  • Visual illusions

Flying and Health

  • Barotrauma
  • Alcohol
  • Drugs and self medication
  • Stress

Information Processing

  • Processing information
  • Attention
  • Perception
  • Memory

Personality and Behavior

  • Personality, attitude and behaviour
  • Styles and characteristics
  • Interaction and factors affecting the group/team

Additional topics 

  • Communication
  • Work load
  • Decision making
  • Human Error
  • Sleep and Fatigue


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